Metadata Archeology – Finding Affiliations in Crossref Metadata

One of the interesting challenges encountered in the migration of Dryad metadata technology into the California Digital Library is the identification of organizations associated with the research data archived in the Dryad Repository. This information is not included in the original Dryad metadata, so digging around for it, i.e. “metadata archeology”, is required.

Dryad includes DOIs for the papers associated with the data, so Crossref is the first place to look for affiliation data. We can use the Crossref Participation Reports to find out which Crossref collections include affiliations.

Recent analysis of Crossref metadata showed that roughly 11% of the Crossref metadata include affiliation information and that this number has almost doubled over the last several years. Thus, affiliations are a small, but growing, part of these metadata. It is well known that affiliation data are generally not well normalized and, therefore, difficult to work with. Nevertheless, identifying good examples of consistent affiliation information providers within the Crossref community and automating the identification of organizations are important steps towards the goal of assigning identifiers (e.g. RORs) to these organizations. Starting this process soon will set the stage for improvements across the broader scientific publication community.

Crossref members that include affiliations in 100% of their metadata records fall into three groups. Some include affiliation information in addition to many other elements in the Crossref Participation reports. These collections look like the Korean Association of Quality Assurance for Clinical Laboratory collection shown in Figure 1 and generally have large numbers for backfile and current in the Table below. Their metadata includes content in many elements along with affiliation content. In addition to being complete for affiliations, this collection shows the largest increase in completeness, from 1.17 to 6.91, across all elements of any in this sample. This increase is clear in Figure 1 as the backfile period (orange) shows content for just two elements, affiliations and open references while the current period (blue) is complete for six.

Figure 1. Metadata completeness for the Korean Association of Quality Assurance for Clinical Laboratory. Note the large increase in completeness between the backfile (orange) and current (blue) periods. Also note that 100% of the metadata records in the current collection contain affiliations and many other elements.

Figure 1. Metadata completeness for the Korean Association of Quality Assurance for Clinical Laboratory. Note the large increase in completeness between the backfile (orange) and current (blue) periods. Also note that 100% of the metadata records in the current collection contain affiliations and many other elements.

The second group of collections has complete affiliation information but is missing some of the other elements included in the Crossref Participation reports. The Information Processing Society of Japan (Figure 2) is an example from this group. Like the first example, this member has greatly increased completeness for affiliations (and similarity checking) recently, but they have not yet taken advantage of many other metadata elements and associated services.

Figure 2. Metadata completeness for the Information Processing Society of Japan. Note the large increase in completeness for affiliations and similarity checking between the backfile (orange) and current (blue) periods. Also note the focus on three elements: affiliations, references, and affiliations.

Figure 2. Metadata completeness for the Information Processing Society of Japan. Note the large increase in completeness for affiliations and similarity checking between the backfile (orange) and current (blue) periods. Also note the focus on three elements: affiliations, references, and affiliations.

Finally, there are new kids on the block, recently joined members with no backfile (zero in the backfile column in the Table) , but very complete metadata in their new collections. These members have joined Crossref after the creation of new services enabled by these metadata elements and they are taking advantage of them. The University of Chitral (Figure 3) is a good example of this group. Their collection has complete metadata for seven of the Participation Report elements and nearly complete (0.93) for the last. Keep up the great work!

Figure 3. Metadata completeness for the University of Chitral, a relatively new member of Crossref with very complete metadata.

Figure 3. Metadata completeness for the University of Chitral, a relatively new member of Crossref with very complete metadata.

The slideshow and Table below shows a selection of the members with complete affiliations during the current period (2017 – present). Scroll the slideshow or click the member name to see the participation report plots. The completeness indices (backfield and current) and the change in the index between the backfile and current time are shown.

All of the collections in this Table can provide examples of affiliation content in all records. However, it is important to keep in mind several provisos.  First, many papers include multiple authors and only one of the authors needs to have affiliation information for the record as whole to be counted as having affiliations. Also, existence is not a measure of quality or usability. The next challenge is being able to convert this affiliation information into standard organization identifiers. That is the target of current work.

Crossref Metadata for Selected Members with Complete Affiliations

Click the member name to see plot.

Member Name Backfile Current Change
Stichting SciPost: journal-article 10.44 10.07 -0.37
Hindawi Limited: journal-article 7.63 9.09 1.46
Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry: journal-article 4.42 9.03 4.61
Society of Psychoceramics: journal-article 0.0 9.0 9.0
National Institute for Health Research: journal-article 6.65 8.54 1.89
Korean Society of Electron Microscopy: journal-article 5.01 8.26 3.25
The Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology: journal-article 3.6 8.19 4.59
Korean Vaccine Society (KAMJE): journal-article 7.17 8.18 1.01
The Korean Society of Blood Transfusion: journal-article 6.52 8.1 1.58
Korean Academy of Periodontology (KAMJE): journal-article 5.58 8.1 2.52
Korean Society of Medical Genetics: journal-article 6.29 8.08 1.79
Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology: journal-article 6.06 8.06 2.0
Korean Association of Thyroid and Endocrine Surgeons: journal-article 6.02 7.93 1.91
University of Chitral: journal-article 0.0 7.93 8.0
The Korean Association of Immunobiologists (KAMJE): journal-article 6.11 7.9 1.79
The Korean Society of Nephrology: journal-article 0.0 7.8 8.0
The Korean Society for Microsurgery: journal-article 6.14 7.8 1.66
Korean Society of Medical Physics (KAMJE): journal-article 5.0 7.76 2.76
The Korean Society of Endoscopic and Laproscopic Surgeons: journal-article 4.63 7.73 3.1
The Korean Society of Toxicology: journal-article 3.41 7.7 4.29
Korean Society of Acute Care Surgery: journal-article 2.68 7.67 4.99
Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology; Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology and Colposcopy (KAMJE): journal-article 4.68 7.55 2.87
Society of Gastrointestinal Intervention: journal-article 5.83 7.53 1.7
The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and The Korean Academy of Pediatric Al: journal-article 6.8 7.42 0.62
Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology (KAMJE): journal-article 5.69 7.38 1.69
Korean Dementia Association (KAMJE): journal-article 6.46 7.36 0.9
Korean Society for Neurorehabilitation (KAMJE): journal-article 5.46 7.34 1.88
The Korean Society for Clinical Laboratory Science: journal-article 6.26 7.31 1.05
The Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology: journal-article 4.42 7.28 2.86
The Korean Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery: journal-article 7.19 7.26 0.07
Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgeons/Korean Society of Endovascular Surgery (KAMJE): journal-article 6.78 7.25 0.47
Korean Association of Urogenital Tract Infection and Inflammation (KAMJE): journal-article 6.74 7.25 0.51
Korean Oncology Nursing Society (KAMJE): journal-article 5.53 7.25 1.72
The Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (KAMJE): journal-article 5.92 7.21 1.29
Korean Association for Laboratory Animal Science (KAMJE): journal-article 5.53 7.19 1.66
The Korean Society of Cardiology (KAMJE): journal-article 4.88 7.16 2.28
The Korean Society of Traumatology: journal-article 5.78 7.13 1.35
The Korean Dental Society of Anesthesiology (KAMJE): journal-article 5.3 7.13 1.83
Publishing House Sreda: journal-article 0.0 7.07 7.0
The Korean Fracture Society (KAMJE): journal-article 4.39 6.99 2.6
Korean Dermatological Association and The Korean Society for Investigative Dermatology (KAMJE): journal-article 5.19 6.93 1.74
The Korean Academy of Prosthodontics (KAMJE): journal-article 5.96 6.92 0.96
Korean Association of Quality Assurance for Clinical Laboratory: journal-article 1.17 6.91 5.74
Korean Society of Lipidology and Atherosclerosis (KAMJE): journal-article 5.26 6.91 1.65
Korean Diabetes Association (KAMJE): journal-article 5.3 6.85 1.55
Korean Neurological Association (KAMJE): journal-article 5.63 6.84 1.21
The Korean College of Clinical Pharmacy: journal-article 0.0 6.78 7.0
Korean College of Cosmetic Surgery: journal-article 0.0 6.78 7.0
Bullaki Ltd.: journal-article 0.0 6.75 7.0
Korean Society of Adult Nursing: journal-article 4.89 6.72 1.83
Society of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research: journal-article 5.59 6.71 1.12
The Korean Society for Vascular Surgery: journal-article 5.76 6.69 0.93
Korean Society of Echocardiography (KAMJE): journal-article 5.03 6.66 1.63
Korean Foot and Ankle Society (KAMJE): journal-article 6.15 6.64 0.49
Sociedad de Lucha contra el Cancer del Ecuador - Matriz Guayaquil: journal-article 0.0 6.62 7.0
Korean Association of Physical Anthropologists (KAMJE): journal-article 4.02 6.62 2.6
The Korean Association of Psychoanalysis: journal-article 5.27 6.59 1.32
The FaithX Project: journal-article 0.0 6.57 7.0
Korean Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (KAMJE): journal-article 5.4 6.54 1.14
Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging: journal-article 0.0 6.44 6.0
Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology (KAMJE): journal-article 5.04 6.4 1.36
Chinese Chemical Society: journal-article 0.0 6.27 6.0
Korean Society of Perinatology (KAMJE): journal-article 6.05 6.27 0.22
Quench Academy of Medical Education and Research (QAMER) Publishing House: journal-article 5.0 6.15 1.15
Mobile Medicine, Ltd.: journal-article 0.0 6.14 6.0
Korean Society for Hospice and Palliative Care: journal-article 5.85 6.08 0.23
Center of Pharmaceutical Analytics Ltd: journal-article 0.0 6.06 6.0
The Korean Retina Society: journal-article 5.42 6.03 0.61
Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education Novosibirsk State Agrarian University: journal-article 0.0 6.0 6.0
Nextjournal: journal-article 0.0 6.0 6.0
The Korean Society of Surgical Metabolism and Nutrition: journal-article 6.0 6.0 0.0
The Korean Society of Community Nutrition (KAMJE): journal-article 5.13 5.98 0.85
The Korean Society of Pharmacognosy (KAMJE): journal-article 6.83 5.96 -0.87
N.N. Priorov National Medical Research Center Of Traumotology and Orthopedics: journal-article 5.75 5.96 0.21
Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods: journal-article 0.0 5.93 6.0
Amp Complect Limited: journal-article 0.0 5.93 6.0
Southwest State University: journal-article 0.0 5.91 6.0
The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (KAMJE): journal-article 3.81 5.88 2.07
The Korean Rheumatism Association (KAMJE): journal-article 5.28 5.88 0.6
Corporacion Universitaria Sabaneta Unisabaneta: journal-article 0.0 5.86 6.0
Verein zur Forderung des Open Access Publizierens in den Quantenwissenschaften: journal-article 0.0 5.83 6.0
The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases: journal-article 4.27 5.8 1.53
The Institute of Medical Science, Chosun University: journal-article 0.0 5.68 6.0
The Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing (KAMJE): journal-article 5.0 5.54 0.54
The Korean Surgical Society (KAMJE): journal-article 5.0 5.54 0.54
Korean Association of Pediatric Surgeons (KAMJE): journal-article 3.27 5.52 2.25
The Korean Nutrition Society and The Korean Society of Community Nutrition (KAMJE): journal-article 4.94 5.47 0.53
The Korean Nutrition Society (KAMJE): journal-article 4.97 5.44 0.47
Publishing House Education and Informatics: journal-article 0.0 5.42 5.0
Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans - Udekom Balkan: journal-article 0.0 5.4 5.0
Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research (KAMJE): journal-article 5.0 5.39 0.39
The Korea Society of School Health: journal-article 3.48 5.33 1.85
Korean Neurotraumatology Society (KAMJE): journal-article 4.6 5.32 0.72
The Korean Society of Gastroenterology (KAMJE): journal-article 5.02 5.3 0.28
The Korean Society for Legal Medicine (KAMJE): journal-article 5.0 5.28 0.28
Korean Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology (KAMJE): journal-article 5.0 5.22 0.22
Armacost Library: journal-article 0.0 5.2 5.0
Academic Association of Management and Administration - AVADA: journal-article 0.0 5.14 5.0
The Korean Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Implantology: journal-article 4.06 5.09 1.03
The Korean Society of Menopause (KAMJE): journal-article 4.97 5.08 0.11
Information Processing Society of Japan: journal-article 1.31 2.87 1.56

 Note: Data in this Table were collected on June 18, 2019